The Moon is between the Earth and the Sun, so the bright side of the Moon is facing away from the Earth.
So-called ‘supermoons’ occur when the Full Moon happens to coincide with the Moon’s closest approach to Earth (‘perigee’), and therefore appear larger than usual.
In the Northern Hemisphere the vernal equinox falls about March 20 or 21, as the Sun crosses the celestial equator going north. According to the astronomical definition of the seasons, the vernal equinox also marks the beginning of spring, which lasts until the summer solstice (June 20 or 21 in the Northern Hemisphere.
Conjunctions involve either two objects in the Solar System or one object in the Solar System and a more distant object, such as a star. A conjunction is an apparent phenomenon caused by the observer's perspective: the two objects involved are not actually close to one another in space.
In astronomy, a planet's elongation is the angular separation between the Sun and the planet, with Earth as the reference point. The greatest elongation of a given inferior planet occurs when this planet's position, in its orbital path around the Sun, is at tangent to the observer on Earth.
Two astronomical objects are said to be in opposition when they are on opposite sides of the celestial sphere, as observed from a given body. A planet is said to be "in opposition" when it is in opposition to the Sun.
The perihelion and aphelion are the nearest and farthest points respectively of a body's direct orbit around the Sun.
The partially shaded outer region of the shadow cast by an opaque object, i.e. the Earth
Penumbral Lunar Eclipse
Only the more diffuse outer shadow of Earth, the penumbra, falls on the moon’s face.